A series of circuits refer to a circuit that has only one path through which current flow. In the series circuit, all the components are connected in such a way that if any fault happens in the circuit, the current will not flow through the circuit. The current in the series circuit is the same throughout the circuit. On the other hand, parallel circuits refer to a circuit with more than one path through which current flows. In the parallel circuit, all the components have various branches for current flow; thus, the current is not the same throughout the circuit
A circuit is said to be a series circuit when the flow of current is the same throughout all the components in the circuit. In series circuits, the current has only a single path.
In a series circuit, the relationships between current and voltage are the exact inverse of those in the parallel circuit. The current through each series element is the same and equal to the source current.
Advantage of series circuits:
It has a simple design that is easy to understand.
It does not overheat quickly.
It has a higher output voltage so that we can add more power appliances.
It carries the same current throughout the circuit.
Disadvantage of a series circuit
If the total number of components increases in the circuit, circuit resistance will more.
If a fault occurs at one point, the total circuit will break.
A parallel circuit refers to a circuit with two or more two paths for the current to flow. In a parallel circuit, all the components have the same voltage.
In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each element is the same and equal to the source voltage, and the current through each element varies according to the impedance of each element.
Advantage of parallel circuits
In a parallel circuit, if any one component gets damaged, the current does not stop and continues to flow through the other components; hence other components work efficiently.
In a parallel circuit, the voltage across every component is the same; therefore, all components work efficiently.
In a parallel circuit, you can easily connect or disconnect a new component without affecting the working of another component.
Disadvantage of parallel circuit
In a parallel circuit, we cannot apply an additional voltage source.
A parallel circuit requires lots of wires for connection.